Friday, December 30, 2016

My Certification as a Genealogist Decision is...

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that I did not receive certification.  Two judges said yes and one, no.  My portfolio went to a fourth judge for arbitration who agreed with the no - insufficient for certification.
I was looking forward to the rubric results but I'm a little confused by them.  For example, on the ratings for a Case Study, Judge 1 said I partially met 5 standards and 2 standards were undetermined. Judge 2 said I met all the standards and Judge 3 said I met 5 standards and partially met 2.  That's a wide disagreement!
Further clarification regarding the ratings is also given.  That, too, varies greatly from judge to judge. Judge 1 wrote "...Court proceedings' information is described as "secondary" and the hospital admission information as 'firsthand.'  When informants and their ability to know facts are unknown, information can only be considered as 'undetermined.' (Standard 36)"  I agree but I knew and wrote who provided the information; the hospital information was given by the subject of the Case Study as she signed the document and the court information was provided by her sister, who was named and attested she was the sister.
Judge 2 did not include any comments about the Case Study.  Judge 3 wrote, "...Research extends to commonly used sources and the use of hospital and court records for [subject's] insanity hearing and institutionalization is well done..."
All 3 rubric results follow this same pattern for the remaining portfolio submissions.
I don't think the Genealogical Standards are subjective.  I'm unclear, though, how I received ratings and comments with such variance all based on the same Standards.
I was hoping that the rubric would benefit my growth as a genealogist because I don't know what I don't know.  Instead, I'm left with trying to determine what I'd improve upon.  One judge noted, "...There are minor capitalization and punctuation differences between the original and the transcription...The research plan demonstrates awareness of commonly used record groups; however, attempting to anticipate all contingencies at the outset interferes with efficient focus..." while another stated, "The document is accurately transcribed and abstracted, background is carefully described, and a thorough research plan is proposed."  So, should I made a thorough research plan or not?  I have no idea.
I thought about posting all but the BCG supplied document on my website, genealogyatheart.com, but decided it might not be a good idea as three of the entries were generated for clients and there is a lot of personal information included.  I did have permission from all of them to use for the portfolio but posting online is another matter.  I also thought about posting the rubrics but I don't know how that would benefit anyone without seeing the portfolio.
In reflecting on almost the past two years since I decided to pursue certification I think the process was worth it.  I did spend a lot of time away from my family and I'm not ready to do that again.  For now, I won't be reapplying any time soon.  I plan on continuing to research, write and learn.  Maybe I'll change my mind some day but for now, that's my plan and I'm good.



Thursday, December 29, 2016

Hints to Get Your Needed Records During the Upcoming Year

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I'm not sure what it is about holidays - maybe it's the food, knowing time away from work is coming or the spirit of the season but I've learned that when I have a needed record to obtain those are the best times for me to secure it.

The good news is there are holidays all year long and you can use that to your advantage!  Here's what has happened to me and maybe this "Month of the Year Research Calendar" will work for you, too:

January - Last year I was writing a Kinship Determination Paper for by Board for Certification of Genealogists portfolio on the Harbaugh family and I needed clarification about their religious beliefs. Most of the first generation was buried in a Lutheran Cemetery in Indiana but the second generation was buried in a Brethren Cemetery.  I was trying to understand when the change occurred so I called several churches in the area during the Christmas season seeking parishioner records from the 1880's.  The timing was wrong - churches are extremely busy then.  I followed up via email in January and reminded them of the prior phone call, mentioned I hoped they had an enjoyable Christmas and before they got busy with Lent, would love them to check their parish records for me.  It worked!  By Valentine's Day I had pictures of relatives I had never seen, a copy of the parish record book, an understanding of why the family went to a different denomination (it was across the street from where they lived) and a diary on DVD in which a parishioner had recorded daily life in the area that just happened to record ALL of the births and deaths of the family I was searching.  January is for me, the best time to obtain church records!

February through Easter and October through December- This might not work for those somewhere other than Florida but I find those months the best time to meet folks from New England, Mid Atlantic and the Midwest as they are temporary residents here and frequently attend local workshops. So, if you're residing in those locals then do this on the months I haven't recorded!  I pick their brains on resources from their home area, get leads on people back home they know who might help with my research and sometimes, meet a cousin.  I've blogged previously about a serendipitous meeting I had in October 2016 (Less Than 6 Degrees of Separation and December 2015 A Transcription Treat).

March - April and November - I don't know why these seem to be less busy times at archives but I've always found that the staff was readily available to help and the sites sparse with visitors.  I'm talking about the Family History Library in Salt Lake and the New England Historic and Genealogical Society in Boston.  I guess most researchers are either on spring break in a warmer climate or too busy getting ready for Thanksgiving during these times leaving the facility vacant.  I've also had quick responses from state libraries via email during these months.

May - September - Need a tombstone photo?  This is the best time to get one! Why?  Simply because people visit cemeteries most between Memorial Day (duh!) and Labor Day.  Put a request for a photo on Find-A-Grave a week prior to Memorial Day has almost always gotten me the photo I need. Think about it, who in their right mind would go out in a blizzard to take a cemetery photo?  Well, yes, I would and have but that was because I was visiting the area and wouldn't have gotten another chance to find what I needed.  If I lived in the area, I would wait til the snow melted.

Thanksgiving - December - I was pining for the marriage record for one of my 3rd great grandparents.  It's not online and I needed to verify the date I found in family records as some of those were slightly off.  I had called the small town in Ohio Clerk's Office in August and was told to follow up with an email.  I gave the couple's names, dates of birth and what I thought was the marriage date.  Two weeks went by and I didn't hear anything so I emailed again.  I got a response that the clerical workers were too busy.  Waited another two weeks and emailed once more.  Got the response that they were still busy and wouldn't have time to look it up.  Emailed the office manager and got no response.  I left the email as open in my email account as a reminder I needed to pursue it. Well, on the Monday before Christmas I sent the following:  Dear (clerk's name), I've been a good genealogist this year and I'm hoping that you can assist Santa in bringing me the marriage record for my great grandparents - Emma Kuhn and Francis "Frank" Landfair.  It's all I want for Christmas! Wishing you a joyous season, Lori"  I got it the next day.  The response also explained why it's never been scanned and online - evidently the book is in poor condition and won't photograph well.  I've also used a similar tactic the day before Thanksgiving.  I called a cemetery for records and the office worker finally agreed to fax them to me because I told her I was having family over the following day and we just had to know who was buried in which plots.  This cemetery is located in a not so nice area so I never could get anyone to take a photo and the clerk had previously refused to release the info due to privacy previously.  (BTW-the dead don't have privacy rights but she was insistent the cemetery rules prohibited her from releasing the plot information).

Hope this helps your hunting as you plan your research for the year!

Thursday, December 22, 2016

Most Read Genealogy At Heart Blogs of 2016


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With the New Year approaching I decided to look back on my blogs written during 2016.  When I began blogging in 2015, it was with the intention of documenting my journey to become a Certified Genealogist.  Although I submitted my portfolio in August, I won't receive a response for several more months.  Since I'm no longer "On the Clock" but still don't have a decision regarding certification, I decided to continue my twice a week musings about new discoveries, trends and ideas.  Here's what my dear readers found most interesting - the top 10 most read articles of my 2016 posts:

Sunday, December 18, 2016

Knocking Down Nicknames

Knock, Knock
Who’s there?
Al
Al who?
Al give you a kiss if you help me break through this brick wall!

Yes, that is truly a dumb knock-knock joke but it makes me think of what I’d do if I was able to identify some folks by their given names.

Who’s Al?  Is he Alvin, Albert, Alfie, Alexander, Alexa, Alfred or someone else entirely?  Although Al typically is a male name, I’ve known a female that used it. 

Why do we even use nicknames?  Wickipedia states hypocoristic, a synonym of nickname, is an "affection between those in love or with a close emotional bond, compared with a term of endearment."
  
I completely understand the use of endearments but nicknames cross over into the public realm and for genealogists, can be a nightmare!  I speak for myself ; Lori is my nickname.  Why my parents didn’t place that name on my birth certificate I don’t understand.  I asked!  The response was, “I don’t know.”  Geez.  My formal name wasn’t a family name so there was no reason they couldn’t have.  My mom said she was going to name me Patty, after her friend, but when I arrived I didn’t look like a Patty and my birth certificate name just came to her.  Wonderful!  She never could explain to me what a Patty looked like.
I seriously considered even getting my name legally changed a few years ago when government requirements tightened and I had difficulty proving who I was as none of my legal documents matched.  Hubby goes by a nickname, too, but his official records all used the same name so he had no problem.  He has successfully kept his nickname out of public records. 

My problem began before I was out of diapers – my parents applied for a social security card for me using my nickname.  I had no problem obtaining work (or paying social security all my working life!) under that name until 10 years ago when the laws changed for license renewal.  To beat the system, I had to add “aka” on my bank accounts, mortgage and credit cards and place my birth certificate name on my official records.  I’m so paranoid about being identified correctly that when I did my burial pre-planning a few months ago I made sure I included my given and nickname on the document.  Problem was, my name is too long so I had to use whiteout and try again.  Nothing like a genealogist messing up their own record!

Even though we took great pains to name our children so they wouldn’t have the nickname dilemma, nicknames are now back in vogue.  Did you know there are online generators to help you select your own nickname?  Who knew!  Reasons for giving yourself a nickname are because you think your birth name is boring, there are too many people with your given name in your social group and you’re being confused, your name is too long or it’s difficult to pronounce.  Some folks are even changing their names as they begin a new life experience.  I can only imagine how much fun this will be for future genealogists to correctly identify individuals!

On the flip side, these sites could help you in figuring out the birth name of your brick wall person.  Check these out if you're stuck identifying someone in your family tree:

1001+ Cool Nicknames
The Origins of 10 Nicknames
Common Nicknames
800+ Nicknames
Nicknames for Boys
Vintage Nicknames for Girls

Wednesday, December 14, 2016

Photo Preservation for Genealogy


I found it interesting that four of Legacy Family Tree's top 10 webinars of 2016 revolved around photography (Dating Family Photographs - 1900-1940 by Jane Neff Rollins;  Enriching Your Family History through Pictures and Stories by Amie Bowser Tennant; Tech Savvy Scrapbooking & Journaling for Family History by Amie Bowser Tennant; and Flip for Flickr - Share, Store, and Save Your Family Photos by Maureen Taylor).  I guess you could even make a case that a fifth one also involves photos (Crowdsourcing with Social Media to Overcome Brick Walls in Genealogy Research by Amie Bowser Tennant) since FaceBook and Pinterest are valuable genealogical tools to find photos.
I love discovering photos and when I perform Client work I try to add them to a project.  Staring into the eyes of an ancestor elicits emotions like no other item can! 
So, that's why I'm worried about the present habits we have developed (no pun intended!) regarding preserving our photos.  Our smart phones and other devices have made preserving memories incredibly quick, easy and inexpensive.  I use my phone's camera for recording anything I want to refer back to, such as a whiteboard that was used during a brainstorm session in a meeting, two garments I might purchase to see which would better match the shoes I left at home, and of course, family events.  I take more photos now than at any earlier stages of my life.  I also have a horrible habit of not preserving those photos I take.  
As I walk throughout my home I noticed that most of the framed photos I have on display were taken by a professional.  Back in the day, having a photograph made was an event in and of itself.  First you had to find the studio, then book an appointment, make sure everyone was dressed and ready to go and finally, return days later to view the proofs to select which you wanted to purchase.  Another trip was necessary to pick up the final product.  No wonder most of those photos are still around.  So much time, effort and cost was involved the photo was determined to be valuable.
Today, not at all.  Snap, click, delete if it wasn't to everyone's liking or share if it was.  We don't print out photos like we did in the past.  Right after the "Years of the Hurricanes" in Florida in the early 2000's I would have said it was a blessing not to have more photos to lug during an evacuation. CD and Cloud technology seemed like such a great idea.  It was the hurricanes that forced me to scan and save my family's photos - those from the 1800's to the recent scrapbooks I had created as my children grew up.  I thought I was being so smart when I saved to CD's and gave them out as Christmas gifts to various relatives.  My thought was to spread them around to increase the likelihood that they would be preserved.  Have a wildfire in California or a twister in the Midwest?  No worries, the CD will live on in New England.  I never thought about CD's going away or family members who misplaced them.  
When Cloud technology came out I simply transferred everything online.  How convenient to be able to access those photos from anywhere!  But the program I used, Picassa, became defunct.  So I transferred them to Google Photos and Dropbox and Ancestry.  
It just hit me I've preserved the past but not the present.  I'm not saving my current photos at the rate that I did before.  Our family's Thanksgiving pics are still in my phone, along with birthdays and other events I've recently attended.  
Just as I calendar in a monthly day to download my gedcom from Ancestry to save to software (Legacy and RootsMagic7) on my hard drive, a stand alone hard drive and in the Cloud (Dropbox) I need to also be saving my pics.  Yes, I am paranoid but I've invested so much time I would be heartsick if all of those were lost.
What I need to do is to get in the habit of cleaning out the photos and preserving them.  My plan is to delete those that didn't come out well and send those I want to keep to my computer.  I'll back those up like I do the gedcom.  This is being added to my New Year's Resolutions!

Sunday, December 11, 2016

We're Related - What to Do if Your Tree is Too Large for the New Ancestry.com Ap

Recently I wrote about my inability to get "We're Related" - the new Ancestry.com ap working. Every time I tried to switch my Main Tree to yes I'd get an error message.  I surmised that it was because my tree was too large and I'm still going with that theory.  I figured out a work around and if you're interested, here's what to do:
  1. I created a new database in RootsMagic7 (Click File - New) and made the file name:  Lori's Lines.  You name yours whatever you want!  I disabled WebHints and clicked "I know where the file is."  
  2. Next I dragged myself from my Main Tree gedcom that was already uploaded in RootsMagic to the click person location. A pop up asks what you want to drag and drop and I selected "Ancestors of myself."  
  3. On this new database, I then went to File - Export and unchecked LDS information, addresses, multimedia, note formatting and extra details because I wanted to make the new gedcom as concise as possible.  I clicked "Privatize living people" and then clicked ok.  I saved the gedcom on my desktop.
  4. Clicking on the ribbon "TREES" on Ancestry.com, I used the drop down menu to click "Create & Manage New Trees."  At the bottom, I clicked "Upload a Gedcom file."  I chose the file sitting on my desktop and named the tree the same as the Gedcom.  I also made the tree private.  Why?  Because I only want people to use my Main Tree on Ancestry and not this subset tree.  Back in the day, I had several lines separated and when people would email me, I never knew which tree they were referring to.  I will never be doing anything with this newly uploaded tree other than using it for the ap so I also went to settings and made sure I turned off the hints.  I DO NOT want more email telling me they found something!  (Personally, I'm really tired of seeing the "Direct Bloodline" and pics of red crosses.  To me, those aren't hints and I wish there was a way to filter that stuff out.) Then I clicked the little box that I accept the submission.
  5. You're almost done!  Now, open the We're Related ap on your phone.  (If you haven't downloaded it go to Google Play Store on Android or whatever you do on IPhone and install it).  I then selected the newly uploaded tree - "Lori's Lines" and slid the no to yes.  I selected myself as the person in my tree.  It stays on and works!  
I decided to do the same for my husband's lines and followed the same process above.  I did have to select myself as him on We're Related because I wasn't an available choice.  Remember, I had pruned these new Gedcoms to bare basics -on my tree only my direct ancestors so our marriage, siblings and children weren't imported.  Can't wait to get in a crowd and try it out!

Wednesday, December 7, 2016

Blaming DNA


I blame my DNA a lot and I know I’m not alone.  Did you ever hear an older individual tell you as you were growing up that you were just like one of your relatives?  I had a teacher tell me I was like my Uncle George and I was perplexed.  How could I be like him?  I was a girl and he was an adult.  When I told my mom she laughed and replied that I liked to play with words like he did.  Uncle George had a nickname for everyone.  Barely five feet tall and needing to sit on a phone book to peer over the steering wheel, Uncle George called my grandmother "Cutlass Mary" as she was quite assertive in her driving.  She also just happened to drive a Cutlass.  Since I loved alliteration, rhyming and play on words I understood what my mom was saying.  I think that was the beginning of my blaming DNA for my personality.
As I began to delve into my family’s history I completely identified with relatives who had gotten into some serious trouble for their views.  Never one to take the path of least resistance, I have questioned authority for as long as I can remember.  In high school, my husband joked that must be my personal motto.  When I discovered I wasn’t the only one in my family with that trait, I also attributed it to my DNA.  
I’m rethinking, though, the amount of influence my DNA has on me due to two events that happened within an hour of each other.  The first occurred while visiting a new dentist.  At this initial appointment, the dentist asked me what happened to my front teeth.  Although not very noticeable, I have some fracturing on the bottoms and a small indent on one of my top teeth.  Regarding my bottom teeth, I told the dentist, I had a playground accident as a child as my permanent teeth were erupting.  They just came up that way!  I told him we must have a genetic mutation of some type on my maternal line as every female has the same indent in the same place.  He laughed and asked if I did arts and crafts, sewing in particular.  Well, yes, I had even worked as a subcontractor with a costume design company in my younger years.  He asked if I used scissors or teeth to cut thread.  My goodness!  The realization that every woman in my family used their teeth to cut thread hit and all I could say was, “I’ve got to tell my daughter.”  So, the indent wasn’t due to DNA but to passing on a habit.  My daughter learned to sew from me as I learned from my mom and she from her mom and who knows how far back.  I recall my Great Grandmother had the same chip on the same tooth.  Who knew?!  
After I left the dentist I stopped by a store as I was having one of my kid’s certificates framed.  As the clerk displayed the final product another customer asked me who was the recipient.  I told her and she said, “Wow, you must be proud.”  I am a proud Momma but I always strive to be a Momma who recognized both of my children’s accomplishments so I added an achievement recently made by the other child.  Her response surprised me; she said, “You must have good DNA.”  
What does that mean - having "good DNA?"  I guess "bad DNA" would be a true mutation that resulted in a life threatening illness.  Yet mutations alone aren't "bad," such as adaptions to make one resistant to diseases. These thoughts quickly ran through my mind as I paid for the frame. 
As I left, I turned to the customer and replied, "Naw, it's not my DNA or my husband's.  It was hard work, tenacity, and self discipline."  
As we delve into our family's history, we need to be mindful of both nature and nurture.  We can blame or praise our ancestors' influences on our lives, both genetically and observed, but the choices and decisions we make are our own.  Happy Hunting!

Saturday, December 3, 2016

Genealogy Gift Ideas

Tis the Season to Merrily Spend!  Here's some things that I requested Santa get me this year:

  • A Stranger in My Genes by Bill Griffin.  I'd like the Kindle edition.
  • Genetic Genealogy in Practice by Blaine Bettinger.  I'd like the paperback edition.  Yes, it costs  a whole bunch more than the Kindle edition but I want to flag pages.  It's also one of my New Year's resolutions to learn as much as I can about DNA in 2017.  
  • Red Pens - I still underline relationship info with them.
  • Renew my memberships to my state and local society - they're due January 1st!
  • Register for the National Genealogical Society Conference that will be held in Raleigh, North Carolina May 9-13.  
  • A sterling silver charm shaped like a tree that I saw at a local art's festival.  
  • A package containing primary source documents for relationship of any of my numerous brick wall ancestors.  No preference of person!  I'd be thankful for any tidbit placed where I could find it.
If you're a Santa's helper and are looking for the perfect gift for the Genea in your life, here's some ideas:
  • A scanner.  Check out Flippal 
  • A jeweler's head magnifier to better read those records.  They start at $7.85 on Amazon.  I have a different model that came with interchangeable lenses that I love.
  • A genealogy mousepad
  • A genealogy license plate holder
  • A genealogy travel mug
  • A subscription to - Ancestry.com, MyHeritage.com, Fold3.com, Newspapers.com, LegacyFamilyTree.com, National Genealogical Society, New England Historic Genealogical Society, New York Genealogical and Biographical Society, your state or local society.  These organizations offer classes/workshops/conferences, journals/newsletters, and a community of like minded helpful individuals for support and ideas.  
  • DNA test kits for the entire family (Ancestry.com, MyHeritage.com, FamilyTreeDNA.com, 23andme.com)  Check the pricing and buy the lowest.
  • A promise you will not roll your eyes, sigh or look bored when your Genea excitedly begins to tell you about the most recent discovery.  That's the best gift ever and it's free!

Wednesday, November 30, 2016

Transcribers Needed! How You Can Help

I recently received an email from the National Archives regarding a need for volunteers to help transcribe and tag items in the archives catalog.  What an awesome opportunity to help digitize historical records!  With the holiday season approaching, this opportunity is a wonderful way to give back to the genealogy community by helping to make available some of the U.S.' national treasures! Not sure where to start?  I say, just follow your heart - check out the Transcription Missions and select whichever area interests you.  The directions are simple - just click here and the easy to follow instructions will get you on your way to doing a very good deed.

Sunday, November 27, 2016

Test Driving MyHeritage.com and Making an Amazing Find!

I had a free account with MyHeritage but I was never a subscriber until recently when a 50% discount offer was made for members of the National Genealogical Society.  I believe the discount is now offered for a limited time to everyone - check it out here.  I decided to give it a try and I immediately scaled a brick wall on my Duer line that I've recently been researching.  Here's how I did it...
I downloaded my gedcom from Ancestry.com to my home computer and then uploaded to MyHeritage.  My tree is large so I received an email from MyHeritage once it had been loaded and was ready to go.  The following day I went on the site and it was easy to upload a site photo (I used my Genealogy At Heart logo that I keep jpg'd in Dropbox and my Google+ pic, added a blurb about what my research interests are and what I'm currently investigating.  I happened to write that my brick wall was to determine the link between John Duer and his purported son, Thomas.  Thomas died in 1829 intestate and John, in 1831, with a will that omitted Thomas, understandably since he was deceased, but did not include any of Thomas' children.  That wouldn't have been odd, however, John did include a grandson who lived out of the Trumbull County, Ohio area, who was the son of one of John's deceased daughters.  Why include a grandson that lived in another state and not the grandchildren that lived next door?  Hmm.
I have researched probate, land and court records, cemetery records, tried to find Bible and church records, obituaries, collateral lines, biographies, area histories, and contacted area genealogical societies and libraries but found nothing. The census and tax lists just aren't helpful since they do not show relationships that far back.
I put the research aside for a month but it's been gnawing at me.  I originally made the connection of John and Thomas through the work of Edgar Duer Whitley, a gentleman who had found me on the internet 6 years ago from a Rootsweb posting I had made in the early 2000's.  My tree proved lineage to Thomas but I couldn't go farther back.  His tree showed lineage to Thomas' son John who had a daughter, Maria, that I'm descended from. Edgar emailed me and kindly sent me an electronic copy of all his years of sleuthing.  He never had a citation, though, of how Thomas and John were related. Shortly after he emailed me he no longer responded to my emails.  He was quite up in age and I figured he was deceased.  Thus, I couldn't know how he knew that Thomas was the son of John.
I would love to tell you that MyHeritage found the answer super quickly but that didn't happen.  I actually didn't receive any Record or Smart Matches from them.  I assume that's because my uploaded tree is well sourced.
I decided to snoop around their Family Trees located under the Research category.  I entered birth and death location and death year info for Thomas Duer.  A number of trees popped up with displays similarly to Ancestry.com.  I clicked on the first one and didn't find anything exciting.  The citations were all from Ancestry trees.  Ugh!
Then things got interesting - I clicked on Thomas' wife Hannah as the tree owner had her listed as Hannah Preston.   I had her listed as Hannah Byrd.  When I went to Hannah's page I discovered that she had remarried to a James Preston in September 1831 in Trumbull County, Ohio.  How had I missed that?  Interestingly, here's how the marriage license is written:
"Ohio, County Marriages, 1789-2013," database with images, Family Search (https://familysearch.org:  21 Nov 2016), Trumbull>Marriage licenses 1828-1839 vol 2>image 55 of 181; county courthouses, Ohio.
Notice the right side records Hannah's surname as "Dewer" but in the body of the text as "Duer."  The record is indexed by Dewer so I never found it.  The tree owner had found it because he was descended from James Preston.  Putting in "James Preston" in the FamilySearch.org search form would have brought it up.
How do I know that the Hannah Duer is the wife of Thomas.  There was only one other Hannah Duer living in the country in 1831 and she was 10 years old, residing in Pennsylvania.  My Hannah and James were both born in New Jersey in 1775.  James' first wife died in 1829 in childbirth with twins shortly after Hannah's husband, Thomas, died.  Both had young children in the home so it makes sense they would have blended their families.  
I went back to Ancestry.com, Familysearch.org and Rootsweb's World Connect Project, to see if other's had this information.  Nope!  Only the one tree on MyHeritage.  For me, this was definitely worth the price.
It looks like the marriage didn't last long which could explain why no one else has the information on their trees.  By 1840, James was living with the children from his first wife and Hannah was living with one of her children as the tick mark in the age category for a female most likely is for her.  That age tick mark is lacking on James' record.  In 1850, the couple remained separated per the census records. Hannah's tombstone notes her first husband's name, Duer.  James lies next to his first wife.  It appears that this was a relationship that both sides wanted to forget.  This could also explain why Hannah's first husband's purported father, John, omitted her from his will written in 1830.  I'm now searching for a divorce record.  This story just gets more interesting with every find! I'm very happy to have found this information that quickly with MyHeritage's site.  Once I'm done with my Duer's I'll be searching their site for other clues on additional lines.  Happy Hunting!

Wednesday, November 23, 2016

DNA Lab Analysis - The Accuracy is Questioned

Recently I attended a workshop by Dick Eastman on Cloud Computing provided by my local genealogy society.  Dick spoke briefly, a lunch break was given and then the workshop resumed.  Although his information was interesting, it was the side conversations I overheard during lunch that piqued my interest.
I need to offer a disclaimer first - one of my children is employed by a large laboratory in the U.S. and part of the job responsibility is to trouble shoot and then correct problems that individual labs are encountering.   The troubleshooting my child does is regarding equipment and not results.  To my knowledge, none of that organization's business is in DNA analysis.  Even so, this proud momma often hears from family and friends who got results back that there must have been some mistake - how could whatever level that was being measured be so high, etc.  It was with this background that I brought to eavesdropping on the conversation at the next table...
A woman was explaining that she had recently had her DNA results returned and she wasn't matching with anyone in her family.  She is unmarried and has no children so none of them tested.  Her parents are deceased and she had no siblings.  By matching, she was referring to cousins.  A man at the table conjectured the lab had made a mistake and mixed up the samples.  Another attendee reported that his results matched with his children, siblings and first cousins but not with relatives from 3 generations back.  He, too, originally thought the lab had erred.  Then a match occurred with a surname which he was not familiar.  He thought he had somehow missed that line in his research so he went back over his records and low and behold, discovered that the matching surname lived in the same boarding house as his 2x's great grandmother.  Hmm.  And yes, great grandma was married to who he had assumed was his great grandfather at the time.  There went all of his research on that great grandpa's line!
Could a lab make a mistake?  Absolutely!  The likelihood, though, is not as great with the processes and procedures that are in place as is the entanglement of human relationships.
The following day I was reading a list serv to which I belong and an individual had posted how she had inadvertently given a female DNA test kit to a male relative.  The lab caught it and asked for clarification.
My advice if your returned results give you unexpected findings - get the test redone at another site.  Prices are dropping for the holidays so the cost is negligible.  There are "rumors" that Ancestry will run a special beginning November 25th for $69.00 to beat the FTDNA price of $79.00.  I don't have that in writing so check around on the 25th to see what happens.
When the test results are returned, if they're similar, well, you know you need to explore other lines to determine who's the daddy.  If they are not the same, I'd contact the lab and share your findings.  You'd probably get your money refunded if the lab made the error and an offer for another test as a thank you for letting them know there is a quality control problem.  Personally, I'm betting on the relationships and not the lab as the culprit.

Saturday, November 19, 2016

Family Tree Maker's Fall Newsletter Makes Me Feel Vindicated!

Well, well,  I'm feeling pretty righteous!  I recently received the Fall Newsletter (which, BTW, is the ONLY newsletter that Family Tree Maker has emailed to me this year so it correctly should be labeled as the "First Fall Newsletter" since Software MacKiev bought the rights for the Microsoft version which is what I formerly used.)
The newsletter was designed to notify the public that they are running behind and don't have the synch ready as they had earlier stated would occur before the end of 2016.  Okay, glitches happen and I am pleased that the organization is taking ownership that they will not be able to meet their self imposed deadline.
IMHO, this is a major step forward.  I've been blogging for quite a while about my frustration with FTM not syching with my large Ancestry.com tree.  Every time I called customer service they would blame Ancestry.  I'd call Ancestry and they'd tell me to call FTM.  I'd wait a day or two and try again as I was hoping whoever was on duty would have the knowledge to assist me.  I posted for help, too but no one seemed to know what the problem was.  The only "help" I ever received was twice when I was emailed a useless pdf that supposedly would get the synch back but that never worked, either. The final time I called, the rep tried to tell me I couldn't follow instructions.   So much for service! That was the day I switched to Legacy Family Tree's standard edition.
But back to the newsletter... I quote, "...So, should you get the latest build right now then? Well, it depends. The improvements are mostly in stability and performance. So if FTM is crashing or has slowed to a crawl with large trees, then have at it. " Finally, they admit that the product doesn't work well with large trees!  Now it's official who owned the problem and I don't blame Ancestry.com one bit for cutting the prior company owners' off last December.  What a nightmare it must have been for Ancestry staff to have to take all those calls from unhappy FTM users!  I also give kudos to Ancestry's staff for handling the calls I made to them in a professional manner.
I tried to link to the newsletter but I don't see it posted on their website so I'm providing the link to sign up to their Mailing List instead.
I would like to see FTM offer a goodwill gesture by providing the new version for free to anyone with a large tree to make up for the wasted time and lack of support.  FTM could determine the size of the tree for the offer.  For now, that's the only way I'd be back.              



Friday, November 18, 2016

Ancestry's New Connection Ap

I downloaded Ancestry.com's new ap "We're Related" on October 25th.  The first day I couldn't get it to stop loading the "Who are you?" page.  I tried several times in the following week and always time out getting the "Error communicating with server, please try later.  Error getting trees.  We seem to be having trouble pulling up the roots."  Cute but annoying.
I'm not sure if it's because my tree is so large or if there is some other issue on their end.  I travel a great deal and thought it would be neat to find others who might be related to me.  Definitely don't use this if you don't want your gps coordinates known!

Sunday, November 13, 2016

Watching the Waistline - Diets from My Family's Past

Just had my annual physical and was happy with the results.  I always brace for the doctor lecture about losing weight.  It didn't come, though, because it's hard to tell someone to diet when the lab results are all good.  Still, I know it's not healthy to be carrying around extra weight.
I come from long lines of fat people so I like to believe it's genetic and not lifestyle.  That's actually delusional on my part as they all loved food and so do I,  My grandmother's best gifts were cookbooks of which I inherited many.
With the holidays approaching, hubby and I decided it would be wise to be more selective of our food choices for the next few weeks.  My hydroponic garden is doing awesome with the warm days and cool nights so I have a bountiful supply of organic lettuce, kale, and cabbage.  Only 3 tomatoes so far but it's early for a Florida harvest.  Same with the peppers, broccoli and cauliflower but that's ok, too.
With the weather cooling off I decided it would be a good idea to make my grandmother's stuffed cabbage recipe.  About 15 years ago I took all of the family recipes, retyped them and had three books made - one for each of my kids and one for me.  I also included anecdotes about the recipe, such as the awesome beef stew from the Lutheran Church Woman's Guild Society's cookbook that was attributed to my sister-in-law  When I first made it and let her know how good it was she had no idea what I was taking about.  Turns out, my mother-in-law submitted the recipe because she wanted to have her daughter's name in print.  We chuckle every time someone mentions beef stew.
Since food was always a big deal in our family, I wanted to pass down as many stories as I could and adding them to the cookbook insured they would be remembered.  By creating a cookbook, I also eliminated wear and tear to the originals.
I don't know why but instead of going to "my cookbook" I pulled out one of my grandmother's old ones and there was her "Miracle Diet" consisting of apple cider vinegar.  I don't know where or when she got it so I did a little internet searching and discovered that no one else can figure out that diet's origin.  I can assure you it didn't work for her.  This got me thinking of other diets.
I found this on a blog by Peter and Drew Greenlaw from 3 March 2016:
"Dieting goes back at least as far as the 3rd century BC, according to Louise Foxcroft, author of Calories & Corsets:  A History of Dieting Over 2000 Years.  She says that followers of the ancient Greek physician Hippocrates recommended a diet of light and emollient foods, slow running, hard work, wrestling, sea-water enemas, walking about naked and vomiting after lunch."  I guess this was also the first documented recommendation for purging.
I'm making a great leap here but my maternal line was originally from the Greek island of Kos. Hippocrates' medical school was located on Kos Island.  I can only imagine my ancestors going to Dr. Hippocrates and being given the fat lecture and his diet.  Clearly, that diet didn't work either or it would have been passed down.
Happy Hunting!
  
Read more at http://www.christianpost.com/news/the-history-of-dieting-and-weight-loss-it-started-2300-years-ago-with-the-greeks-158890/#HRor0tUIBYocC0pg.99

Thursday, November 10, 2016

Genealogy Catch Up - Using the Extra Hour of Day Light Savings to Keep Organized

My goodness I accomplished a bunch last weekend with that hour of extra time!  I'm taking the advice I preach and cleaned out my emails, making sure that I saved everything that was important to my desk top and if it was super important, to the Cloud.  I use the free Dropbox.  For information that may someday be important, I save the link to an Excel file I keep in Dropbox.  For example, if there is a particularly interesting blog about clues from old photographs from Ancestor Cloud or Genealogy in Time Magazine, I copy the link in the Excel spreadsheet.  One column is Topic, next is the link and the third is comments, if any.  That way, if I ever have a brickwall or a client comes to me with a difficult quest with an area where I'm not an expert, I can quickly find useful information.
One email I had received from last month was for a special on Roots Magic.  For my faithful readers, you know I dearly miss the simplicity of the old PAF that Family Search once provided for free. I switched to Family Tree Maker when PAF was dying and was happy until it stopped synching with my Ancestry.com tree.  The many calls and emails I made between both organizations were pointless so I gave up and went to the Standard free version of Legacy.  I liked it so much several months later I bought the Deluxe version.  IMHO, Legacy has the BEST charts of any genealogy software product out there and is a bargain for the price.  But back to the Roots Magic email, there was a special offer for $29.95.  I thought I could do better so I hunted around and found I could get it for $20.00, along with an instructional ebook.  I decided to make the purchase, download my GEDcom from Ancestry and upload to Roots Magic in preparation for when Ancestry.com and Roots Magic are able to synch like Family Tree Maker failed to do.  I got my $20.00 price from the Association of Professional Genealogists but I also found it by looking for special offers.  Here's the link if you'd like to purchase it - ROOTS MAGIC SPECIAL.
Another special for the upcoming weekend - November 12-13 - is Arkivdigital will be free for everyone.  If you have Swedish family it's a must use.  Yes, the records are in Swedish but there are helpful hints on their site or you could use Google Translate.  Happy Hunting!  Now back to Roots Magic...
I was pleased with how quick the upload was; Legacy takes a whole lot longer.  After updating both Legacy and installing Roots Magic, I saved to the Cloud and to a stand alone hard drive as I am paranoid to lose the information.
While I was doing that, Hubby was working at his desk beside me.  I looked over and what did I see but visions of holiday shopping appearing on his screen!  So I gave him my gift list for this year - a new sewing box and three genealogy books.  I did have to have him log onto my National Genealogical Society account to get a discount on the books but that was a good savings, too.
All that took up my extra hour but I felt so good about cleaning up my data I decided to move on to finishing the Canvas project I started in the summer.  I'm just about done with our family poster. I think it's a bargain for $34.95.  Granted, I'm going to have to get it framed.
Haven't checked out how to make one?  If you click on EXTRAS on the Ancestry ribbon and then click on the drop down menu for Photo Books and Posters you leave Ancestry and go to MY CANVAS.  To make a poster, click on their ribbon FAMILY HISTORY.  You can import your Ancestry.com tree to their template and get creative from there.  It's an awesome holiday gift.
If only I could have an extra hour every weekend!

Sunday, November 6, 2016

John Duer, Where Art Thou Buried and other Duer Mysteries?!

My last post, Records Breadcrumb Trail May Lead to Wrong Conclusions, and an earlier post, Circular Migration Patterns-How History Repeats Itself, 30 May 2015) noted my research of my Duer line.  My latest hurdle is finding the burial location of John Duer, my 3rd great grandfather.
I know from his Indiana probate records that John died on 25 February 1885 in Adams County, Indiana.[1] John and his second wife, Margaret Martz Searight, were living in Jefferson, Adams County, Indiana in 1880, along with their two children Charley, age 14 and Lucinda, age 12.[2]  Adams County, Indiana is adjacent to Mercer County, Ohio where both had resided with their first spouses.  I’m descended from John’s daughter, Maria, with his first wife, Mary Jane Morrison.[3]
I’m discovering some interesting information regarding John and Margaret and I wish I could connect up with relatives who might be able to shed light on my findings.  The first “odd” event was John and Margaret’s marriage on 11 December 1864.[4]  How that is odd is that first wife, Mary Jane, did not die until 10 July 1866.[5]  No divorce documentation has been found.  Nothing leads me to believe that John was a polygamist; he was raised as a Presbyterian and his father, Thomas, was buried in a Presbyterian cemetery in Trumbull County, Ohio.[6]  The Justice of the Peace for the second marriage was a third great uncle of mine on another line, John Leininger.  The Leiningers were Lutheran.  Since Mary Jane’s tombstone clearly states she was “the wife of John Duer” and there was only one other John Duer living in the area at the time who happened to be her son who was married to a Carolina Kuhn, this isn’t a case of mistaken identity.  I’m positive that the John Duer that married Margaret was not John and Mary Jane’s son John (Jr.) as I have his marriage certificate to Carolyn in 1863.  John Jr. and Carolina’s first child, John (of course!) was also born in 1866.  Likewise, John Sr. and his second wife, Margaret’s first child, Charles, was born in 1866.  I haven’t been able to find the exact birth date but remember, first wife didn’t die until July 1866.   
If John Sr. and Mary Ann had divorced, why would Mary Jane’s tombstone inscription note her as a wife?

Figure 1Mary Jane Morrison Duer Tombstone[7]
To further support I have the correct John Duer, his will probated in Adams County, Indiana not only mentions his children from his second marriage to Margaret, but Angeline, his youngest daughter with his first wife, Jane.[8]
John and Jane had ten children; at the time of his death six were known to be living.  Yet, he did not note any child from the first wife in his will except Angeline.
There could be several reasons for the omission.  Perhaps his older children, as well established adults, did not need financial assistance.  Maybe there was a falling out and the older children were no longer speaking to their father.  Angeline, Mary and James, children from his first wife, were living in Adams County, Indiana while the other children were living in Mercer County in 1870.  Although geographically these counties are next to each other, perhaps John decided only unmarried children living in Indiana would receive compensation. 
I’ve searched for an obituary for John and Jane and haven’t been able to find one.  I’ve also been unable to find where John was buried. 
Kessler Cemetery records are incomplete.[9]  Jane is mentioned in the records, however, John is not.  According to one of the county trustees, the older section of the cemetery has no empty plots.  There is an empty space in Jane’s row so it is possible that John was interred there with no stone.  If they had divorced, why would he be interred close to his ex? 
To rule out a burial elsewhere, other cemeteries in Mercer and Adams counties were examined.  No burial location for John was found.  John died before death certificates were mandatory in Indiana so there is no clue to be discovered there. 
John’s second wife, Margaret, was also buried in Kessler Cemetery and her burial is notated in the records.  There are no empty spaces in Margaret’s burial location and all surrounding graves have readable tombstones, very similar to Jane’s.  Like Jane, Margaret’s stone denotes her as the wife of John Duer:

Figure Margaret Ann Martz Searight Duer Stone[10]
Margaret was first married to a Mr. Sea(w)ri(gh)te.  She had a daughter, Effie, from her first marriage that was born in 1856.  Effie was born in Ohio so Margaret had emigrated from Hesse, Germany prior to that time. 
I’ve never been able to determine where Margaret’s first husband was buried, either.  Oh, these missing men!
Here’s the second odd situation with this family – John and Jane’s daughter, Maria (not to be confused with Mary, another of their daughters) married Henry Kuhn Jr.  Henry was also an immigrant from Germany; he was quite prosperous and well known in the German community in Mercer.  The Leininger family (the JP for the second marriage) were much like the Kuhns; born in Germany they adapted quickly and held many political offices in the community as well as being successful farmers.  Surely these individuals would have all known each other.  Maria and Henry’s tombstone is ornate and also in Kessler Cemetery.  They could have well afforded a small stone for John. Why doesn’t John have one if he was buried there?
Some individuals do not want a stone but I find no reason that John would have been one of those folks.  His father, mother and grandfather had stones, as did both of his wives.  It seems to me that his passing wanted to be forgotten.
As I was researching obituaries I came across the following unsettling article:



John's wife, Margaret, had met a similar fate[11]
Figure 3 The Fort Wayne [Indiana] Daily News
The son that lived nearby was Charles.




Figure 4 The Evening Republican


Figure The Fort Wayne [Indiana] Evening Sentinel



Figure 6 The Indiana Tribune (in German)

John and Margaret’s son, Charles Edward Duer, was married to Almeda Buckmaster.[12]  I thought she was the “Mrs. Duer” who had died on 1 June 1894[13].  I began to wonder if there wasn’t a sinister side to this line but I’m happy to report that upon analysis, there were two Charles Duers, one in Indiana and one in Ohio.  Both had a loved one die by fire but they were not one and the same.  Whew!  Thought I was identifying a murder suspect for a bit.  Guess it’s just a creepy coincidence!





[1] “Indiana, Wills and Probate Records, 1798-1999,” John Duer, Volume A-C, page 484-486; digital image, Ancestry.com (http:  ancestry.com:  accessed 16 October 2016), citing Adams County, Indiana Circuit Court.
[2] 1880 U.S. census, Jefferson, Adams County, Indiana, population schedule, page 6 (handwritten), family/dwelling 54, John Duer; digital image, Ancestry.com (http:  ancestry.com:  accessed 16 October 2016), citing FHL microfilm 1254263.
[3] See previous blogs for citations.
[4] Ohio, Marriage Intention Application, John Duer,
[5] Find-A-Grave, database and image (http://www.findagrave.com:  accessed 16 October 2016), memorial page for Jane Morrison Duer (1804-1866), Find A Grave Memorial no. 22503919; memorial created by Teresa citing St. Kessler Cemetery, Chattanooga, Mercer County, Ohio; image by Cousin Becky.  Tombstone states “Jane, wife of John Duer” and clearly shows 1866 as the death year.
[6] Find-A-Grave, database and image (http://www.findagrave.com:  accessed 16 October 2016), memorial page for Thomas Duer (1775-1829), Find A Grave Memorial no. 57798621; memorial created by BLJns75 citing St. Pricetown Cemetery, Newton Falls, Trumbull County, Ohio.  No tombstone pictures but confirmed with a local genealogist in Trumbull who had tripped over Thomas’ fallen stone and had it reset, the cemetery was for Presbyterian’s only.
[7] Find-A-Grave, “Jane Morrison Duer,”
[8] “Indiana, Wills and Probate Records, 1798-1999,” John Duer, Volume A-C, page 484-486
[9] Author to       , Mercer County Trustee, Phone and Email, date, .  Author is deeply appreciative of         for not only scanning and emailing the cemetery records for the Duer family, but including other family members who were interred in the cemetery.            Also physically went to the gravesite to verify that there was no stone for John Duer.  She took pictures of surrounding stones and emailed to the author.  Her dedication is exemplary!
[10] Find-A-Grave, database and image (http://www.findagrave.com:  accessed 16 October 2016), memorial page for Margaret A. Duer (1823-1904), Find A Grave Memorial no. 22546617; memorial created by Teresa citing St. Kessler Cemetery, Chattanooga, Mercer County, Ohio; image by Cousin Becky. 
[11] “Burned in Her Home,” The Fort Wayne [Indiana] Daily News, 29 December 1904, p. 1, col. 3.                  
“Aged Woman Cremated,” The [Columbus, Ohio] Evening Republican, 30 December 1904, p. 1, col. 2.
“Aged Woman Burns to Death in Home,” The Fort Wayne [Indiana] Evening Sentinel, 30 December 1904, p. 1, col. 3.
“Radridten and Indiana,” Indiana Tribune, 30 Dec 1904, No. 110, p. 1, col. 6.
[12] “Indiana Marriage Collection, 1800-1941,” Charles E. Duer and Elmeda Buckmaster, 6 March 1886; digital image, Familysearch (https://familysearch.org:  accessed 17 October 2016); citing FHL microfilm 002321466; citing Adams County, Indiana County Clerk Office, p. 124.
[13] “Fatal Burns,” The Lima [Ohio] Times-Democrat, Vol. X, No. 195, p. 1, col. 1.

Thursday, November 3, 2016

Records Breadcrumb Trail May Lead to Wrong Conclusions

I’ve been researching my Duer line lately with the idea that I’ll write a Kinship Determination from where my line begins, with Maria Duer, my great great grandmother, to my gateway ancestor, Thomas Stone Duer.     
I’ve blogged previously about the serendipitous events and detailed how history repeats itself (see Circular Migration Patterns-How History RepeatsItself, 30 May 2015). After discovering the connection, I’ve become more determined to learn about the Duer Family.
Maria left some wonderful records, however, they initially led me to a wrong conclusion.  Years ago, I had found her obituary through the Rutherford B. Hayes Presidential Center Obituary Index[1] but I couldn’t decipher it as it was in German and used Gothic script.  Her daughter Emma’s death certificate stated Maria was born in Germany.[2]  The obit and the daughter’s death certificate led me to believe that Maria was of German descent.  By just looking at the surface, those two records reinforced what I already knew about my father’s long line of German ancestry; I had Leininger, Bollenbacher, Kuhn, Kable, and Kettering surnames sprinkled everywhere in my tree and all of them were German immigrants.  No surprise that Maria Duer would have also been German.  How wrong I was!
Maria was born in Mahoning, Ohio on 2 September 1833.[3]  Adam Kuhn, Maria’s son with whom she resided at the time of her death and who was the neighbor of his sister, Emma, had served as Emma’s death certificate informant.  It is understandable that Adam most likely identified himself with his father Henry Kuhn’s German heritage.  German born Henry Kuhn was a prosperous citizen in Mercer County, Ohio and maintained a close connection with others who had immigrated from Germany.  Henry and Maria had been married for 55 years so she, too, would have been known in the German community so her obituary in a German newspaper makes sense.  After having the obituary translated, I learned that it never stated she was German but it did mention her German born husband.  Daughter Emma died at age 50 after suffering long term physical abuse from her ex-husband of 25 years.  Adam likely recalled his father’s birth place instead of his mother’s when he provided Emma’s death certificate information.  In grief, he probably just made an error.
Census records, a second obituary in English, and a mug sheet entry all confirm Maria was born in Ohio and connect her to her parents, John and Mary Jane (Morrison) Duer.  Maria Duer was once a brickwall ancestor but no longer!  What a great lesson in making sure a reasonably exhaustive search was performed AND analysis of all the found records was done. 





[1] “Maria Duer Kuhn,” obituary, Die Minter [Ohio] Post, 1 August 1913, page 1, col. 3.
[2] Ohio, Bureau of Vital Statistics, death certificate, “Emma Landfair,” number 12296 (stamped, 21 February 1914.
[3] 1850 U.S. census, Killbuck, Holmes County, Ohio, population schedule, page 245 (handwritten) dwelling 557, family 572, Maria Duer; digital image, Ancestry.com (http://www.ancestry.com:  accessed 16 October 2016); citing NARA microfilm publications M432_696.
1860 U.S. census, Liberty, Mercer County, Ohio, population schedule, page 141 (handwritten), dwelling 1008, family 1013, Henry and Maria Coon Jr.; Ancestry.com (http://www.ancestry.com:  accessed 16 October 2016); citing NARA microfilm publications M653_1009.
1870 U.S. census, Liberty, Mercer County, Ohio, population schedule, page 15 (handwritten) dwelling 55, family 58, Maria Kuhn; digital image, Ancestry.com (http://www.ancestry.com:  accessed 16 October 2016); citing NARA microfilm publications M593.
1880 U.S. census, Liberty, Mercer County, Ohio, population schedule, page 7 (handwritten) dwelling 55, family 58, Maria Kuhn; Ancestry.com (http://www.ancestry.com:  accessed 16 October 2016); citing FHL microfilm 1255048; citing NARA microfilm publications T9_1048.
1900 U.S. census, Liberty, Mercer, Ohio, population schedule, sheet 9 (handwritten) dwelling141, family176, Meriah Kuhn; digital image, Ancestry.com (http://www.ancestry.com:  accessed 16 October 2016); citing NARA with no further information provided.
1910 U.S. census, Liberty, Mercer County, Ohio, population schedule, sheet 9 (handwritten) dwelling 320, family 278, Miria Kuhn; digital image Ancestry.com (http://www.ancestry.com:  accessed 16 October 2016); citing NARA microfilm publication T624_1214.
Ohio, Department of Health Division of Vital Statistics, death certificate, “Maria Kuhn,” state file number 41826, 22 July 1913.
“Marie Kuhn,” The Grim Reaper, The Celina [Ohio] Democrat, 25 July 1913, page 1, col. 4.
Compilers, A Portrait and Biographical Record of Mercer and Van Wert Counties, Ohio (Chicago,IL:  A. W. Bowen & Co., 1896) 400-401; digital image, Google Books (https://books.google.com:  accessed 16 October 2016).