Wednesday, April 29, 2015

Specials to Share!

I had planned to write about my decision to obtain Certified Genealogist status but this week I discovered 3 special offers so I’ve revised my plan to let you know what I found.
DEAL #1
If you aren’t a Legacy member, you may not know that you can take advantage of their webinars; some cost, some are permanently free and others free for just a limited time. 
For a list of their archived webinars visit
I’m not a member of Legacy so I only watch the free ones.  I first learned about the webinars when I signed up for their weekly email newsletter after I purchased Legacy software last Christmas as a present to myself.  I ended up with Legacy because I was so frustrated with Family Tree Maker (FTM).  My extremely large public “Main Tree” on Ancestry.com stopped synching with my desktop FTM last May.  I called FTM customer service and they blamed Ancestry.  Called Ancestry and they blamed FTM.  This went on for several weeks.  I did what everyone does when you call a call center and can't get help - hang up, wait a few minutes and call again with the hope you'll get someone more knowledgeable.  Unfortunately, that didn't work, either.  FTM reps did sent me a useless email with instructions several times but it didn't fix the problem.  Next I posted on the Ancestry Message Boards asking for advice.  Surprise, surprise, discovered from the Message Board that I wasn’t alone with the problem so I began to explore other family tree software options.  Looking at them seriously made me start pining for my old PAF from Family Search!  Since that’s no longer available, for a temporary fix, I downloaded Legacy’s free family tree standard software
and was happy that it could quickly save my Ancestry tree.  I liked that it also gave me an error report.  I just wanted a product that would serve as a backup on my desktop in case I couldn’t sign on to Ancestry but the more I used Legacy, the more I liked it so I decided to buy the latest version.  I haven’t really explored all of its features yet which is on my to-do list.  I am trying to download my Ancestry tree monthly and save it to Legacy.  After a weekend thumb drive disaster, it’s something I really will make time to do on the first of every month (Famous Last Words!) but that’s another story…
On Monday I listened to the passionate webinar presentation by Bernice Alexander Bennett regarding her volunteer work at the National Archives and took the challenge she mentioned.  No spoilers here – this is a must listen to training offered through May 1st! on Legacy so sign on for the 1 hour class “United States Colored Troops Civil War Widow’s Pension Applications:  Tell the Story.”
DEAL #2
The second special offer with a limited time is that Fold3’s Civil War records are FREE for the month of April.  If you aren’t a paid member then you’ll really want to check this out by Thursday, April 30th at 11:59 PM!  You’ll have to register your email at
but it’s well worth it.  I stayed up way too late last night but got all of my “close” Civil War records saved to honor the 150 years since the war ended.  This included my great great grandfather Ferdinand Kable (Ohio Infantry Unit 29 Company A), 2 times great uncles Thomas, Prosser, and Mark Duer, (Ohio 99th Infantry Regiment, Company F), my husband’s great great grandfather Samuel August Samuelson (Indiana Infantry Unit 73), and 2 times great uncle Thomas Charles Thompson (Illinois 1st Light Artillery Battery).  I also saved records for several coworkers whom I’m working on their trees for my Certified Genealogist portfolio.
Then I got totally side tracked and looked up the War of 1812 pension records for my 3rd great grandmother, Mary Polly Dennis Hodge Adams Elder Search.  Yep, GGGGrandma outlived 4 husbands.  Her first husband, John Hodge, died in combat and she was left in 1813 with twin boys in the Ohio wilderness.  And to think I thought childcare was a nightmare when my kids were small; I can’t even imagine what she went through!  Her second husband, Edward Adams, whom I’m descended from, died in 1822 leaving GGGGram with 5 kids.  She then married Owen Elder and after a 6th child, became a widow again in1830.  The pension records were under her last husband, William Search’s name. Someday I plan on writing more about the hunt for Mary and her family. 
DEAL # 3
Got an email from our friends at geneablogger about an Ancestry.com contest to win a 6 month US Discovery Ancestry membership.  I don’t know what happens if you win and you’re already an Ancestry member – I figure I’ll do a pay it forward and give it away or negotiate with them for a discount. If you’re interested first go to
and click on “Look inside” on the right hand side of your screen.  You want to go to the back of the book and write down the LAST PAGE NUMBER.  Then, enter the contest:

http://www.geneabloggers.com/giveaways/win-6month-ancestrycom-membership/?lucky=7964 
Simplest entry I’ve ever participated in but I did like Ancestry’s former October contests where you tried to use your research skills to discover the answers.  Never won but sure had fun!  Hint, Hint, Ancestry - do it again!

Next time, really, I'll be writing about the reason I decided to go for the gold standard of genealogy – Certified Genealogist.




















































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































Sunday, April 26, 2015

The Scoop on Salt Lake City's Family History Library - Views of a First Time Researcher

Your truly waiting for the library to open
If you haven’t been bitten by the genealogy bug you don’t understand why anyone would spend a week of their hard earned vacation time in a library far from home researching dead people.  My work colleagues gave me polite bemused smiles last month when I shared my exciting news – I was FINALLY going to the Family History Library in Salt Lake City, Utah.  Definitely not a dream vacation for any of them but it’s always been my hope to one day research there. 
Here's what I learned from my adventure...

BEFORE YOU LEAVE HOME:
  • Form a goal - mine was finding clues on how to climb over at least one of my top 10 walls in the four days I would be visiting.
  • Make a list of the people you want to search – what you know, how you know it, & what you want to know.  Then, narrow your list down as you aren’t going to have time to check out every one.  I used a small pocket notebook as a backup to my electronic tree.  I have my tree saved to a cloud (Dropbox and ancestry.com) so it's available in case I needed to view saved original records. The notebook enabled me to write down call numbers, page numbers and thoughts and was a backup if the electricity went out.  (Ok, I realize that would be highly unlikely but being from Florida where we have the power go out frequently, I was going to find a window and keep working from my paper notes.)
  • If you haven't already done so, join FamilySearch - like the library, it's free. Then, use the online catalog  at www.FamilySearch.org to identify resources you’ll be checking.  If you're not sure how to use the catalog check out this video:  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=W2lw1Z6xC4c  Make sure you remember to print and bring the list you’ve compiled! You’ll be using the catalog as you find new information at the library but this initial search is a great way to identify a starting point.  If you see “Vault” on an item request that it be pulled for you so it will be available on the day of your visit - you can do that from home.
  • View these YouTube videos so you are familiar with the library procedures:  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O_umqQmaGvM  and https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4sAr7NltMaY
  • You'll quickly get acclimated to the floor collections: British Isles-Basement 2, International-Basement 1, Surnames and Canada books-1st floor, US/Canada microfilm-2nd Floor and US Books and Maps-3rd floor. Here's a floor plan of the library: https://familysearch.org/locations/library_floor_plans 
  • Go online to verify the library hours (Typically Monday 8AM-5PM, Tues-Fri. 8AM-9PM, Sat 9 AM-9PM). I saw a sign while there of an upcoming closure so do check ahead of time or you may be in for a disappointing surprise.
  • Google Earth your hotel and the library (35 North West Temple Street) so you know the route.  The blocks are much longer than in my area but it was a pleasant walk as passerbys were very friendly.
WHAT TO BRING:
  • Kindle Fire/IPad/Tablet if you have one.  Don’t go out and buy one if you don’t!  I used my Fire to take notes, sign on to the free wifi to check my tree, use google translator and do quick searches of the catalog while in the stacks or at the microfilm area.  Saved time getting up and walking over to a computer.
  • Digital camera, scanner or your phone with a fully charged battery.  I took pics of the book pages and microfilm discoveries.  If none of those suggestion work for you, purchase a copy card.  I wanted to come home without killing a forest and be able to quickly import what I found to my tree page so the camera worked well for me.  I bought an extra sd card but didn’t need it. Make sure you bring the charger to recharge the battery overnight! 
  • Office Supplies I found useful were a pen (there are pencils with no erasers and scrap paper everywhere), stickees to tag book pages that I wanted to photograph, and a highlighter to highlight the microfilm index pages I wrote down so I knew that I checked each page. (I so despise microfilm even though that’s where I seem to find my most amazing discoveries!)
  • A magnifying glass - seriously!  Some of the records are small and difficult to see.
  • A bag to carry your research goodies.  I used my airline carry-on purse but a backpack would also work.  My hotel was several blocks away and it rained so the bag and the rain poncho I brought kept my stuff safe and dry.          
WHAT TO LEAVE HOME OR IN YOUR HOTEL ROOM:
  • Laptop – there are plenty of computers to use.  I brought mine the first day and it was heavy to lug around as you don’t want to leave it out unattended.  I used it in the hotel in the evening to upload my discoveries, record the source citation while they were still fresh in my mind, and plan for the following day’s research but I really didn’t need to bring it at all since I had the tablet.
  • A thumb drive - always have one on me but didn't use it.
WHAT OTHERS RECOMMEND THAT I DIDN’T FIND USEFUL:
  • Change – I used the lockers on the first day only to store the laptop I didn’t need. 
  • Orientation  Room– Since I viewed the YouTube videos I didn’t need to spend time there, though I did a quick walk through of the eye appealing displays in the room.
  • Snacks-I was so consumed by what I was doing I wasn’t hungry.  I brought a box of granola bars but never ate them. There is a vending machine area if you do get hungry.
  • Meals at the Blue Lemon in City Creek Center that everyone raves about because the line was long (there was a conference in town).  For a quick bite, eat at JBs, the old fashion restaurant on the corner - a nice salad bar, daily specials and a to die for chocolate chiffon pie to celebrate your finds! I figured I burned a 1000 calories using my brain to research so the calories didn’t count.  JBs online reviews weren’t so hot but due to inclement weather, I didn’t want to venture far.  Wish I had discovered them on day 1!  Also did Johnny Rocket and Jimmy Johns for lunch, Olive Garden, Squatters Pub, and Blue Iguana for dinner.  Used the hotel breakfast bar which had a nice selection of different items every morning.
 
City Creek Center with real trout in the creek!
I’M HERE, NOW WHAT?
  •  First Day - I admit that I’m a research nerd and I got so excited when I walked in that I announced to the world that my dream had come true.  I guess that got me tagged as a Newbie which resulted in the staff asking me throughout the day how things were going.  Each morning staff welcomed me back and asked what I'd be working on that day.  By my last day I was hugging several volunteers and staff members good-bye as their genuine interest in my research bonded us.  I sent a few email thank you’s upon my return home as one genealogist’s neighbor was from my childhood hometown and I had pictures to share. Another volunteer was researching the same surname (Coke) from the same areas (Virginia and New York) and we hit it off.
  • On each floor is a podium with helpful volunteers.  I call them the Greeters.  On your first time on each floor they can give you useful tips for their resources.  For example, on the 3rd floor on the left wall is a notebook cheat sheet to quickly locate state-county-city books on the shelves.  I wouldn’t have found it if the Greeter hadn’t told me about it.  After you’re familiar with the floor I found myself going to the podium behind the podium – that’s where you ask for specific genealogical assistance.
  • Ask For Help - I liked to get there at opening because there are no crowds and you can quickly speak with a genealogist.  If there is a wait, they’ll give you a restaurant style pager.  I never waited longer than 5 minutes.  Getting a new pair of eyes on your quandaries can open up a new direction for you. Blue lanyards are research helpers, red lanyards are collection helpers.  Even if you forget which is which you’ll be directed to someone that can help you.
  • Pace Your Day – I varied my activities between looking at books, microfilms (which tires my eyes), following a new lead online after using their other resources, and talking with a genealogist. I tried to speak with a genealogist first because both of us are fresh first thing in the morning, there is no wait and the advice might have revised my plan for the day.  I looked at books next because they don’t circulate to my home library for review like microfilms do so I didn’t want to miss them.  On my last afternoon I browsed the surname books on the first floor.  I found 2 books on Leiningers I didn’t know about and was surprised they didn’t have the 2 that I have, nor any of the 3 Harbaugh books.  It’s important to remember they don’t have everything.  If you don’t find what you’re looking for it still may be out there somewhere so don’t give up! 
  • Classes – I didn't think I would have time to take a class so I didn't look at the schedule from home.  Thank goodness that the daily classes are posted and an announcement is made about 30 minutes before the start of one.  I found I did have time so I took Scotts-Irish Research Ideas and French Resources.  Both were awesome, FREE and gave me additional direction to pursue.  I wish I could have squeezed in the German class, too.
  • Have Fun Outside of the Library, Too!  All research and no sightseeing makes for an exhausted and grumpy travel companion so do see the surrounding area.  There is a Visitor’s Center next to Salt Lake Palace Convention Center (with a nice small gift shop) a block away that can assist you.  My travel companion and I took the UTA light rail http://www.rideuta.com/mc/?page=RidingUTA  which is very inexpensive to the University of Utah to visit the "Dino" Museum https://nhmu.utah.edu/ and the botanical gardens next door http://www2.redbuttegarden.org/

Only in Salt Lake City will you see a Dino Family Tree
Magnolia at Red Butte Gardens
A student we met on the light rail gave us a short walking tour of the University which was also nice.  There is a free campus van that will drive you from the light rail to the museum/gardens.  It's about a 10 minute walk but it's all uphill!
One night we did the Ghost Tour http://grimmghosttours.com/phone/index.html which was fun but a little creepy – I skipped out on visiting the serial killer’s basement.  
The Mormon Tabernacle Choir had a dress rehearsal on another evening which was wonderful.  (No pictures, no audio and they check your bags).  
The choir was in the building across from the Temple
We also rented a car to go to Antelope Island and the Great Salt Lake.  This is where the bison and the antelope play. http://stateparks.utah.gov/parks/antelope-island/
Great Salt Lake
Bison
WHAT I WISH THE LIBRARY BIGWIGS WOULD KNOW:
          Your knowledgeable and dedicated employees and volunteers are beyond awesome!  I so appreciated their wonderful recommendations, encouragement and patience with my many questions.  I am thankful that I was able to visit your beautiful facility and plan on returning again and again!
          Only suggestion I have is to remind your Elders if you want the Millennial generation to become interested in genealogy, they need to be encouraging. On two separate days, my travel partner was questioned by Elders as to why I was asking all the questions.  She responded politely that she was new to genealogy and was in town for the conference.  The response of both was, "Hrmph."  My advice, Elders, is listen to the Sisters. They always said, "Glad you're here!"

WHAT I TOLD THE 'KNOW AT ALLS' WHEN I GOT HOME:
         IMHO, there are 2 kinds of people in the world - the glass is half full and the glass is half empty.  Before I left home I had several people tell me I wouldn't find anything. WRONG!  I found and learned so much that I only wish I had more time to spend and lived closer.  I am truly sorry for the folks that never found what they were looking for.  I know it's frustrating but it is what it is. Just because you didn't find anything doesn't mean no one else should go. 
      I also had acquaintances tell me that I would be accosted by Mormons who were going to repeatedly attempt to evangelize me.  WRONG!  No one ever tried to persuade me to join the Mormon faith.  No one ever asked me what my faith is.  The ancestors I was researching had been Quaker, Roman Catholic, Lutheran, Dutch Reformed, Puritan, Episcopalian, Presbyterian, Baptist and Methodist.  No one cared that they weren't Mormon.  No one tried to 'baptize' them.  Just because a Mormon woke you up too early on a Saturday morning does not mean it's going to be a problem in the library.  It won't be.  So go visit - you really must!

Next time I'm going to share my thoughts on how the library experience pushed me to pursue becoming a Certified Genealogist.

Thursday, April 23, 2015

Euripides was right! Why you should leave no stone unturned.

Sometimes in genealogy we get so consumed with the names, places, and dates of our ancestors that we overlook the details that tell us much about their character.
The cemetery records transcribed by Josephine Frost from an earlier book by Henry Onderdonk broke through a 16 year genealogical brick wall and gave insight on the spiritual beliefs of the Wilson Williams Family: 

     “Williams,   Wilson Williams:  died March --?, 1831; aged 76 years.”

     “Williams, Margaret.  Wife of Wilson Williams, died April 26, 1807               in her 64th year
     F.W.  A common field stone marked “F.W.”
     W.W. A common field stone marked “W.W.”1

The obvious information provided by these records are the name of the deceased, month and year of death, age at death and type of grave marker. For Margaret, her spouse’s name is also provided.  F.W. most likely is a mistranscription of Wilson’s father, Thomas Williams. 
There is much more information provided that isn’t initially obvious, however. The first hint is the mention of a common field stone.  Onderdonk and DeHart (1884) tell us that the Dutch Reformed denomination custom “In early times farmers often interred their dead on their farms and put up at their graves a rough flat stone with the initial of the name, and year of decease rudely cut thereon.”2  From the record we know that Wilson and F.W. are following the Dutch Reformed tradition of burial.  
But what about wife Margaret?  There is no mention of a common field stone marker for her.  
To locate picture of the markers, death dates were inputted into Find-a-Grave. No record for F.W, W.W., Thomas or Wilson Williams was found.  The common field stone markers may be missing or may have been missed by the volunteers who photographed the cemetery.  There is a record for Margaret Williams; she is noted to be buried in Christ Church Cemetery, Manhasset, Nassau, New York3. :

We know this is our Margaret because the death date, spouse's name and her name match the church burial record of Frost's transcription.  
Margaret’s headstone reveals that she did not follow the field stone custom as did her husband.  Margaret also did not follow what Walter (1987) notes is "the traditional Dutch practice of the wife retaining her maiden name" on her marker.4  .
A more careful examination of Margaret’s tombstone will give a better insight of her belief system.
Margaret’s stone is worn so a transcription is needed.  Enlarging the picture uncovers:
In Memory of Margaret
Wife of Wilson Williams
deceased the 26th of April, D. 180_
In the 64th year of her age
Behold my friends, as you pass by
As you are now so once was I
As I am now you soon shall be
Prepare for death and follow me
By researching the poem more knowledge about Margaret becomes available. With some variation in the third line, the poem was commonly used in colonial times.5  Meyer (2006) noted that the poem was “Influenced by the ‘British pre-Romantic graveyard school’ of poetry” and the ‘Americanized Puritan mind-set’.”6 He cites George and Nelson (1985) who identify it as a “mori gravestone epitaph found throughout New England" between the 16th-17th century.7
Wilson and Margaret lived between 1754-1831.  Margaret was born, lived and died in Long Island, New York and there is no record that she ever ventured to nearby New England.  The use of a common New England epitaph tells us that:
·        Margaret or her spouse’s ancestors were originally from New England or
·        The area in which Margaret lived was influenced by New England
History tells us that Long Island was populated by former New England colonists and during the Revolutionary War, some Long Islanders fled back to New England for safety.  Thus, New England’s influence could result from either Margaret’s childhood or later, during her adult years.  Only further research of Margaret’s parents can determine when the origination of her spiritual influence occurred.
The poem, however, does provide us more insight into Margaret’s belief system at the end of her life.  It is considered to be memento mori, Latin for “remember, that you have to die,” a Medieval theory that the Puritan community espoused.8
We know from Frost (1941) that at the time of Margaret and Wilson’s burial, Christ Church Cemetery belonged to the Reformed Dutch Church.9 Today, the cemetery belongs to the Episcopalian Church. 10  Is there a relationship between these denominations?
Boettner (1932) notes that “it is estimated that of the 3,000,000 Americans at the time of the American Revolution, 900,000 were of Scotch or Scotch-Irish origin, 600,000 were Puritan English, and 400,000 were German or Dutch Reformed.  In addition to this the Episcopalian’s had a Calvinistic confession in their Thirty-nine Articles…”.11  The interrelationship is explained further by Monsma (1919) “The Pilgrims were perfectly at one with the Reformed (Calvinistic) churches in the Netherlands and elsewhere.  In his Apology, published in 1619, one year before the Pilgrims left Holland, Robinson wrote in a most solemn way, ‘We do profess before God and men that such is our accord, in case of religion, with the Dutch Reformed Churches, as that we are ready to subscribe to all and every article of faith in the same Church, as they are laid down in the Harmony of Confessions of Faith, published in that name.”12 Clearly, the Puritan English, Dutch Reformed and Episcopalians have a shared history.  
                         “You never really understand a person until you                          consider things from his point of view” –Harper Lee
What were Margaret’s spiritual beliefs?  Although we may never know for certain, based on the selection of the epitaph, Broker (2003)13 cites Stannard (1977), “the Puritan worldview included the following beliefs:
1. The earth is positioned at the center of the Universe [a decidedly pre-Copernican belief].
2. The world is infused with design and divine purpose.
3. God is omniscient and omnipresent, and the course of every man's life is predestined.
4. God is inscrutable.
5. Death is inevitable, and it is God's punishment for the original sin of Adam.
6. Children are born with and imbued with this original sin.
7. Evil spirits and evil men occupy the earth. In fact, all suffer from "utter and unalterable depravity."
8. Death is a reward, at least for the chosen few.
9. Upon death, the soul is released from its earth-bound world.
10. The millennium is at hand, whether one takes it to mean the apocalyptic Day of Judgment or the thousand-year reign of Jesus prior to the Day of Judgment.
11. The most glorious purpose to which a Puritan can espouse is to work to ‘bring God's kingdom home.’
12. Some will receive eternal salvation as a gift bestowed by God, but most face eternal damnation. Hell is a place of ‘unspeakable terrors.’
13. It is impossible to know with confidence that you are among the saved. The best you can do is to examine your life constantly and maintain faith in your own goodness and God's own justness”14
There is one piece of evidence that is atypical, however, for both Puritan and Reformed Dutch believers at the time the marker was made.  Margaret's stone has NO artwork.  Shortly after the Revolutionary War, stone cutters from Great Britain arrived in the New York area.  The most typical motif for the Dutch Reformed in New Jersey was a tulip, shell, or fan; in Long Island, as in New England, urns and willows became dominant over the cherub or winged skeleton found on grave stones from the pre Revolutionary times.15 
Why Margaret has no artistic design on her marker remains a mystery. Perhaps it was Wilson's decision to keep the marker plain as was his own marker years later or maybe Margaret adhered to the earliest Puritan custom of no artwork. Without family records we can only surmise.
Analyzing death records and grave markers can provide the researcher with more than just vital statistics.  Careful study can unlock further clues about the family’s convictions.  Euripides was certainly right!

Your comments are most welcome.  Next time I'll take a break from the scholarly and give you IMHO the ins and outs of visiting the Family History Library in Salt Lake City.

1Frost, Josephine C. Microform p. 41 & 47. Church Records from Reformed Dutch Church at Success, Long Island, Later Known as North Hempstead, and Now Known as Manhasset, 1731-1878 (1941): 17748 item 1.
2Onderdonk, Henry, and De Hart William Henry. History of the First Reformed Dutch Church of Jamaica, L.I. Jamaica: Consistory, 1884. 33-34. Web. 19 Apr 2015.
3Dyane. "Margaret Williams ( - 1807) - Find A Grave Photos." Margaret Williams ( - 1807) - Find A Grave Photos. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 Apr. 2015.
4Watters, David (Ed). "Markers : Association for Gravestone Studies : Free Download & Streaming : Internet Archive." Internet Archive. University Press of America, 1987. Web. 21 Apr. 2015.
5Meyer, Richard E. ""Death Possesses a Good Deal of Real Estate": References to Gravestones and Burial Grounds in Nathaniel Hawthorne's American Notebooks and Selected Fictional Works." " by Meyer, Richard E. Studies in Literary Imagination, Vol. 39, No. 1, Spring 2006. Web. 19 Apr. 2015.
6Palmer, Sara A. "Spinning Wheel Magazine." Google Books. 417., n.d. Web. 19 Apr. 2015.
7George, Diana Hume, and Malcolm A. Nelson. Epitaph and Icon: A Field Guide to the Old Burying Grounds of Cape Cod, Martha's Vineyard, and Nantucket. Orleans, Mass: Parnassus Imprints, 1983. Print.
8"Memento Mori." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, Web 19 Apr. 2015, Translation from the Oxford English Dictionary, Third Edition, June 2001.
9Frost, Josephine C. Microform preface. Church Records from Reformed Dutch Church at Success, Long Island, Later Known as North Hempstead, and Now Known as Manhasset, 1731-1878 (1941): 17748 item 1.
10Dyane. "Christ Church Cemetery - Find A Grave Photos." Christ Church Cemetery - Find A Grave Photos. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 Apr. 2015.
11Boettner, Loraine. "28." The Reformed Doctrine of Predestination. Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans, 1932. N. pag. Web 19 Apr. 2015.
12Monsma, John Clover. What Calvinism Has Done for America. Chicago: Rand, McNally, 1919. 72-73. Print. Web 19 Apr. 2015.
13Broker, Stephen P. "03.02.01: Death and Dying in Puritan New England: A Study Based on Early Gravestones, Vital Records, and Other Primary Sources Relating to Cape Cod, Massachusetts." 03.02.01: Death and Dying in Puritan New England: A Study Based on Early Gravestones, Vital Records, and Other Primary Sources Relating to Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute, 2015. Web. 19 Apr. 2015.
14Stannard, David E. The Puritan Way of Death: A Study in Religion, Culture, and Social Change. New York: Oxford UP, 1977. Print.
15Watters, David (Ed). "Markers : Association for Gravestone Studies : Free Download & Streaming : Internet Archive." Internet Archive. University Press of America, 1987. Web. 21 Apr. 2015.